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What is a battery?
What is a battery?
Battery is the generic name for all types of electric power sources without removable parts. It is most commonly used for electrochemical current sources consisting of one or several electrochemical elements (cells). When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode.
The distinctive features the batteries vary due to many factors, including indoor compounds, temperature, and power consumption.
According to the battery life cycle:
- one-off (Primary batteries)
- rechargeable (Secondary batteries)
According to the materials they are made of:
- Primary batteries are designed to be used until exhausted of and then they are discarded. Their chemical reactions are generally not reversible, so they cannot be recharged. When the supply of reactants in the battery is exhausted, the battery stops producing current and cannot be used.
- Secondary batteries can be recharged; that is, they can have their chemical
reactions reversed by applying electric current to the cell. This regenerates the
original chemical reactants, so they can be used, recharged, and re-used
The lithium-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a rechargeable battery in which lithium ions are moved from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back-up. Lithium-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as an electrode material, compared to metallic lithium used in a lithium battery which cannot accumulate. The electrolyte that allows ionization, both electrodes, are constituents of a cell of a lithium-ion battery.
The lead-acid battery is a type of battery, created in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Plante. This is the oldest rechargeable battery that accumulates and gives electricity. Despite the small energy factor in terms of size and weight, the battery has the ability to deliver high power, which means the cells in the battery have a good energy-to-weight ratio. This property together with their low cost makes them suitable for use in motor vehicles to power the engine starters.
Application and features:
Modern acid batteries are the most commonly used rechargeable batteries due to their low cost and good performance. They are the main similar vehicles used in road transport and as emergency sources of power in telephone exchanges, security systems, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), etc. Batteries not only come in different voltages and capacities, but also can be connected in various operation schemes. Thus, batteries have a wide variety of output voltages and length of usage time.
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